Credit (from Latin credit, "(he/she/it) believes") is the trust which allows one party to provide money or resources to another party where that second party does not reimburse the first party immediately (thereby generating a debt), but instead promises either to repay or return those resources (or other materials of equal value) at a later date. In other words, credit is a method of making reciprocity formal, legally enforceable, and extensible to a large group of unrelated people. The resources provided may be financial (e.g. granting a loan), or they may consist of goods or services (e.g. consumer credit). Credit encompasses any form of deferred payment. Credit is extended by a creditor, also known as a lender, to a debtor, also known as a borrower. Credit does not necessarily require money. The credit concept can be applied in barter economies as well, based on the direct exchange of goods and services. However, in modern societies, credit is usually denominated by a unit of account. Unlike money, credit itself cannot act as a unit of account. Movements of financial capital are normally dependent on either credit or equity transfers. The global credit market is three times the size of global equity. Credit is in turn dependent on the reputation or creditworthiness of the entity which takes responsibility for the funds. Credit is also traded in financial markets. The purest form is the credit default swap market, which is essentially a traded market in credit insurance. A credit default swap represents the price at which two parties exchange this risk – the protection seller takes the risk of default of the credit in return for a payment, commonly denoted in basis points (one basis point is 1/100 of a percent) of the notional amount to be referenced, while the protection buyer pays this premium and in the case of default of the underlying (a loan, bond or other receivable), delivers this receivable to the protection seller and receives from the seller the par amount (that is, is made whole).
A bridge loan is a type of short-term loan, typically taken out for a period of 2 weeks to 3 years pending the arrangement of larger or longer-term financing. It is usually called a bridging loan in the United Kingdom, also known as a "caveat loan," and also known in some applications as a swing loan. In South African usage, the term bridging finance is more common, but is used in a more restricted sense than is common elsewhere. A bridge loan is interim financing for an individual or business until permanent financing or the next stage of financing is obtained. Money from the new financing is generally used to "take out" (i.e. to pay back) the bridge loan, as well as other capitalization needs. Bridge loans are typically more expensive than conventional financing, to compensate for the additional risk. Bridge loans typically have a higher interest rate, points (points are essentially fees, 1 point equals 1% of loan amount), and other costs that are amortized over a shorter period, and various fees and other "sweeteners" (such as equity participation by the lender in some loans). The lender also may require cross-collateralization and a lower loan-to-value ratio. On the other hand, they are typically arranged quickly with relatively little documentation.
For typical terms of up to 12 months 2–4 points may be charged. Loan-to-value (LTV) ratios generally do not exceed 65% for commercial properties, or 80% for residential properties, based on appraised value. A bridge loan may be closed, meaning it is available for a predetermined time frame, or open in that there is no fixed payoff date (although there may be a required payoff after a certain time). A first charge bridging loan is generally available at a higher LTV than a second charge bridging loan due to the lower level of risk involved, many UK lenders will steer clear of second charge lending altogether. Lower LTV's may also attract lower rates again representing the lower level of underwriting risk although front-end fees, lenders legal fees, and valuation payments may remain fixed.
A soft loan is a loan with a below-market rate of interest. This is also known as soft financing. Sometimes soft loans provide other concessions to borrowers, such as long repayment periods or interest holidays. Soft loans are usually provided by governments to projects they think are worthwhile. The World Bank and other development institutions provide soft loans to developing countries. This contrasts with a hard loan, which has to be paid back in an agreed hard currency, usually of a country with a stable robust economy. An example of a soft loan is China's Export-Import Bank, who gave a $2 billion soft loan to Angola in October 2004 to help build infrastructure. In return, the Angolan government gave China a stake in oil exploration off the coast. Another example is the interest free soft loan of Rs. 20 billion given by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to the government of West Bengal (India) on the condition that it be used for health, education and developing infrastructure and that the government would implement 16 economic reforms. The field of Natural Finance uses the term Soft Loan as an enforced ability-based repayment loan where the softness is not based on below market interest, but rather on terms that don't include fixed dates for repayment, but do mandate repayment when borrower is able to
A non-performing loan, or NPL, is a loan that is in default or close to being in default. Many loans become non-performing after being in default for 90 days, but this can depend on the contract terms. According to International Monetary Fund, "A loan is nonperforming when payments of interest and principal are past due by 90 days or more, or at least 90 days of interest payments have been capitalized, refinanced or delayed by agreement, or payments are less than 90 days overdue, but there are other good reasons to doubt that payments will be made in full". By bank regulatory definition, non-performing loans consist of: other real estate owned which is taken by foreclosure or a deed in lieu of foreclosure, loans that are 90 days or more past due and still accruing interest, and loans which have been placed on nonaccrual (i.e., loans for which interest is no longer accrued and posted to the income statement).In India, non-performing loans are common in the agricultural sector where the farmers can't pay back the loan or the interest amount mainly as a result of losses due to floods or drought. Generally NPL problems are resolved in two ways: Centralization – This happens when all the concerned parties including the banks, regulators and government get together to find solutions. This generally takes the form of a central organization/agency such as an Asset Management Company. Decentralization – This approach involves steps taken by the affected banks. The decentralized approach is common for bad loans arising from bad lending. In this approach, the banks are left alone to manage their own bad loans by giving them incentives, legislative powers, or special accounting or fiscal advantages.